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Annotated Holocaust Bibliography II

3. Biography

4. Fiction

5. Memoirs

6. Diaries

7. Poetry, Drama, and Art

8. Literary Criticism

3. Biography

Baker, Leonard. Days of Sorrow and Pain: Leo Baeck and the Berlin Jews. New York:Oxford University Press, 1980.

Leo Baeck was the leading rabbi in Berlin when Hitler came to power, and heassumed a main role in helping Berlin Jews, first to emigrate, and when that wasno longer possible, to resist through underground activities. Refusing to leaveGermany himself, he eventually was sent to Theresienstadt.

Breitman, Richard. The Architect of Genocide: Himmler and the Final Solution. NewYork: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991.

This is not a biography of Himmler in the traditional sense that it chroniclesthe life of the man from birth to death. Rather, it focuses on his years as aNazi, his relationship with Hitler, and his role in masterminding the FinalSolution. Other Nazi leaders, like Goering and Goebbels, are discussed at length.

Brietman, Richard and Walter Lanqueur. Breaking the Silence. New York: Simon andSchuster, 1986.

Eduard Schulte was a major German industrialist who abhorred Hitler and Nazism.He is the man credited with passing on to the Allies news, not only of troopmovements and weapon programs, but revelation of the Nazi plans for genocide.This biography relates Schulte s story from his childhood to his postwar years.The authors also describe the responses of Allied governments to the informationhe passed on to them.

Bullock, Alan. Hitler: A Study in Tyranny. New York: HarperCollings, 1991.

The focus of this study is less on Hitler himself than on his position within theNazi Party. Bullock explores the connection between Hitler and Nazism and placesboth in historical context. In addition, he traces the roots of Nazism back tothe Weimar Republic

Keneally, Thomas. Schindler's List. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992.

Oskar Schindler was an influential German industrialist with high-levelconnections in Nazi Germany. He used his position to protect many Jews.Keneally's absorbing biography is based on interviews with many of those helpedby Schindler.

Sereny, Gitta. Into that Darkness. New York: Random House, 1983.

Franz Stagl, a convicted Nazi war criminal, was interviewed in prison by theauthor. These interviews are supplemented by testimony from witnesses. Stagl wasCommandant of the camps at both Sobibor and Treblinka. His testimony, as told toSereny, is revealing and chilling.

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4. Fiction

Appelfeld, Aharon. Badenheim, Nineteen Thirty-Nine. New York: Pocket Books, 1981.

The story revolves around a group of upper-class Jews in an Austrian resort town,on the eve of war. The author, himself a Holocaust survivor, creates a hauntingpicture of impending tragedy, heightened by the reader s awareness of the eventsto come.

Begley, Louis. Wartime Lies. New York: David McKay, 1991.

Begley, himself a child caught up in the Holocaust, has written a first-personnovel about a young Jewish boy and his aunt who survive only due to a pattern ofdenial and compromise that leaves its own scars.

Borowski, Tadeausz. This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentlemen. New York: VikingPenguin, 1992.

Through this collection of remarkable short stories, Borowski describes hisexperiences in Auschwitz and Dachau. His focus is on the atmosphere of the campsand its effect on the inner being. He probes the minds of both victims andperpetrators.

Fink, Ida. A Scrap of Time. New York: Schochen, 1989.

The title story in this collection of short stories concerns the way time wasmeasured by Holocaust victims. Other stories describe people in a variety ofnormal human situations distorted by the circumstances of the times.

Friedlander, Albert. Out of the Whirlwind. New York: Schocken, 1989.

Not all of the entries in this anthology are fiction; excerpts are also includedfrom historical works and personal narrative. The book is arranged thematically,making it especially helpful for a teacher looking for material to supportspecific aspects of a curriculum.

Glatstein, Jacob. Anthology of Holocaust Literature. New York: Macmillan, 1973.

Chapters in this collection cover life in the ghettos, children, the camps,resistance, and non-Jewish victims. Excerpts are included from both works offiction and primary source materials such as diaries, memoirs, and ghettodocuments. Man of these pieces can be especially useful if teachers provideadditional background information on the authors and context of the writings.

Kosinski, Jerzy. The Painted Bird. New York: Random House, 1993.

In this autobiographical novel, Kosinski chronicles the horrors visited upon asix-year old boy wandering through Europe during the Holocaust. This is withoutdoubt the most graphic and brutal Holocaust material in existence.

Ozick, Cynthia. The Shawl. New York: Random House, 1990.

Originally published as two separate stories in the New Yorker, the first, verybrief, title story tells of a mother witnessing her baby s death at the hands ofcamp guards. The second story, Rose, describes that some mother, 30 years later,still haunted by that event. This is Holocaust fiction at its best, brief butunforgettable.

Schwarz-Bart, Andre. The Last of the Just. Cambridge, MA: R. Bently, 1981.

Based on the Talmudic legend of thirty-six men of each generation upon whosevirtue the existence of the world depends, this novel traces the history of theLevy family from medieval time to Ernie Levy, the last of the just, who died atAuschwitz.

Wiesel, Elie. The Town Beyond the Wall. New York: Schocken, 1982.

In this post-Holocaust novel, a survivor returns to his home town seeking tounderstand and confront those who stood by and watched his deportation. Wieselprobes the issue of survivors coming to terms with the Holocaust experience.

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5. Memoirs

Anatoli, A. Babi Yar: A Document in the Form of Novel. Cambridge, MA: RobertBentley, 1979.

As a Russian boy of twelve, A. Anatoli used to play in the and was in earshot ofthe machine gun fire that signaled the massacre by Nazi mobile killing units ofmore than 33,000 Jews on Sep- tember 29 and 30, 1941. Long regarded as one of thegreatest Soviet novels of World War II, Babi Yar is an unforgettable account ofthe years of German occupation.

Delbo, Charlotte. None of Us Will Survive. Boston: Beacon Press, 1968.

Delbo is one of the most eloquent of Holocaust writers. She writes of herexperiences at Auschwitz in prose so powerful that the reader seems to become apart of the experience. Through the poetic use of language rather than graphicdescriptions of atrocities, she creates unforgettable images.

Donat, Alexander. The Holocaust Kingdom. New York: Anti-Defamation League, 1963.

The author, a Polish Jew whose Holocaust experiences included the Warsaw ghetto,Majdanek, and Dachau, was separated from his wife and son at Majdanek butreunited with them after the war. He tells his own story and the stories ofothers with whom he came in contact. His wife describes her own experiences inthe final section of the book.

Eliach, Yaffa. Hasidic Tales of the Holocaust. New York: Vintage Books, 1988.

Through interviews and oral histories, Eliach garnered eighty-nine tales, bothtrue stories and fanciful legends. This beautiful, compelling collection bearswitness, in a traditional idiom, to the victims suffering, dying, and surviving.

Frankl, Viktor. Man's Search for Meaning: An lntroduction to Logotherapy. NewYork: Pocket Books, 1984.

A psychiatrist as well as a concentration camp survivor, Frankl s work is onlysecondarily a personal memoir. Primarily, it is an attempt to understand andexplain the psychology of camp victims through Frankl s own experiences andobservations.

Hillesum, Etty. An Interrupted Life. New York: Pocket Books, 1991.

Hillesum s diary entries from 1941-1942 and her letters to family and friendsfrom the Westerbork transit camp in occupied Netherlands reveal her personaldevelopment in a time of terror. Soon after being deported from Westerbork, shedied in Auschwitz, at the age of twenty-nine.

Leitner, Isabella. Fragments of lsabella: A Memoir of Auschwitz. New York: Dell,1983.

A survivor of Auschwitz recounts the ordeal of holding her family together aftertheir mother is killed in the camp. This slim volume is an eloquent account ofsurvival in the midst of chaos and destruction. A glossary of camp language is avaluable addition. Leitner's story is continued in Saving the Fragments.

Levi, Primo. Survival in Auschwitz. New York: Macmillan, 1987.

Levi was an Italian Jew captured in 1943 and still at Auschwitz at the time ofliberation. He not only chronicles the daily activities in the camp, but hisinner reactions to it, and the destruction of the inner as well as the outerself. This memoir is one of the most important books on the Holocaust.

Meed, Vladka. On Both Sides of the Wall. New York: Holocaust Publications, 1979.

This is an informative memoir of the Warsaw ghetto by one of the young smugglerswho maintained contact between the ghetto and the Aryan side of the city. Workingfor the Jewish Combat Organization (ZOB), Vladka Meed helped smuggle weapons

Nir, Yehuda. The Lost Childhood. San Diego: Harcourt Publications, 1979.

This compelling memoir chronicles six extraordinary years in the life of a PolishJewish boy, his mother, and his sister, who all survived the Holocaust byobtaining false papers and posing as Catholics. Yehuda Nir lost almosteverything, including his father, his possessions, his youth and innocence, andhis identity, but he managed to live with the help of chance, personalresourcefulness, and the support of his family.

Szwajger, Adina B. I Remember Nothing More: The Warsaw Children's Hospital andthe Jewish Resistance. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992.

The author was beginning her last year of medical school when the Nazis invadedPoland in 1939. From that time until January 1943, she worked in the Children'sHospital of the Warsaw Ghetto. When the hospital was closed after the first armedJewish resistance, she left the ghetto with false papers, and from then until theliberation, worked as a courier for the resistance.

Wiesel, Elie. Night. New York: Bantam, 1960.

Wiesel is one of the most eloquent writers of the Holocaust, and this book is hisbest known work. This compelling narrative describes his own experience inAuschwitz. His account of his entrance into Auschwitz and his first night in thecamp is extraordinary. This narrative is often considered required reading forstudents of the Holocaust.

Yoors, Jan. Crossing: A Journal of Survival and Resistance in World War II. NewYork: Simon and Schuster, 1971.

Every summer during his teen years, Yoors left his comfortable, upper middleclass family life in Belgium to travel around Europe with a Rom (Gypsy) family.This beautifully written journal focuses on the participation of Yoors and hisfondly remembered Rom friends in resistance activities during World War II.

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6. Diaries

Frank, Anne. The Diary of Anne Frank: The Critical Edition. New York: Doubledayand Company, 1989.

This edition of the internationally acclaimed diary includes three differentversions: the portion that was originally found, the revisions made by Anneherself, and the version edited by her father. In addition, there is extensivecommentary on each version.

Hilberg, Raul, et. al., eds. The Warsaw Diary of Adam Czerniakow. Lanham, MD:Madison Books, 1982.

Czerniakow was chairman of the Nazi-appointed Jewish Council in Warsaw from theGerman invasion in 1939 until his suicide in 1942. His diaries record the historyof the period as well as his personal involvement with the Germans.

Ringelblum, Emmanuel. Notes from the Warsaw Ghetto: The Journal of EmmanuelRingelblum. New York: Schocken, 1974.

The official archivist of the Warsaw ghetto, Ringelblum's training as anhistorian made him uniquely qualified to understand the importance of documentingevents inside the ghetto. He carefully collected and hid documentary evidence andpersonal notes.

Tory, Avraham. Surviving the Holocaust: The Kovno Ghetto Diary. Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press, 1990.

Tory, a ghetto inmate and secretary of the Jewish Council, wrote this accountunder conditions of extreme danger. This remarkable, detailed chronicle documentslife and death in the Jewish ghetto of Kovno, Lithuania, from June 1941 toJanuary 1944. Translated from the Yiddish, the book includes a valuablecollection of photos and sketches by artists in the ghetto.

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7. Poetry, Drama, and Art

Fuchs, Elinor, ed. Plays of the Holocaust: An International Anthology. New York:Theater Communications Group, 1987.

This represents the only major anthology of Holocaust drama from a variety ofnations in a number of literary styles. In addition to the plays themselves, thebook includes a bibliography of Holocaust drama.

Heyen, William. Erika: Poems of the Holocaust. St. Louis, MO: Time Being Books,1991.

Heyen and his immediate family emigrated to the United States from Germany beforethe war, but he had two uncles who remained there and died serving Germany.Heyen's poems reflect his unique perspective and his ambivalent feelings abouthis family s painful history. Earlier editions were published under the titleSwastika Poems.

Hinz, Berthold. Art in the Third Reich. New York: Pantheon, 1979.

The art and architecture produced during the Third Reich is examined not only forits content and technique, but for the role it played in Nazi politics andphilosophy. Numerous reproductions supplement the text.

Hyett, Barbara Helfgott. In Evidence: Poems of the Liberation of NaziConcentration Camps. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1986.

Part of a team that interviewed American liberators of concentration camps, Hyetttranslated their words into these poems. The selections are brief and thelanguage is spare and stark reflecting the difficulty these men had inarticulating the horrors they witnessed.

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8. Literary Criticism

Aaron, Frieda W. Bearing the Unbearable: Yiddish and Polish Poetry in the Ghettosand Concentration Camps. Albany, NY: State University of New York, 1990.

Aaron, herself a survivor of the Warsaw ghetto and Majdanek concentration camp,has undertaken the first study of Yiddish and Polish camp poetry. She emphasizesthe distinction between contemporary writings and works written after theexperience, the latter typical of most Holocaust literature.

Ezrahi, Sidra D. By Words Alone: The Holocaust in Literature. Chicago: Universityof Chicago Press, 1982.

This literary history of the Holocaust discusses a number of specific works,including works in American literature. The author also focuses on the languageof the Holocaust and the ways in which different writers interpret the samefacts.

Fine, Ellen. The Legacy of Night: The Literary Universe of Elie Wiesel. Albany,NY: State University of New York Press, 1983.

Fine looks closely at the works of Wiesel, tracing the literary and spiritualpatterns she finds. In addition to looking at connections between books, fromNight to The Testament, she examines individual books in depth. Other works onWiesel include The Vision of the Void by Michael Berenbaum and Confronting theHolocaust edited by Alvin Rosenfeld and Irving Greenberg.

Heinemann, Marlene E. Gender and Destiny: Women Writers and the Holocaust.Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1986.

Focusing on six specific Holocaust books by women writers, including CharlotteDelbo's "None of Us Will Return", Heinemann examines the areas in which Holocaustliterature by female writers differs from that created by male writers.

Insdorf, Annette. Indelible Shadows: Film and the Holocaust. New York: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1990.

Films from both Hollywood and Germany are examined here, as well as filmsproduced in other, mostly western, European countries. Both documentaries andfictional films are included, as are both short and feature-length films. Insdorfparticularly looks at whether a film confronts or evades the real issues of theHolocaust.

Langer, Lawrence L. The Age of Atrocity: Death in Modern Literature. Boston:Beacon Press, 1978.

In this study, Langer analyzes four major literary works, by Mann, Camus,Solzhenitsyn, and Delbo. Using these works as examples, he traces the evolutionof the twentieth-century concept of death, from individual death, to mass death,to death by atrocity, and death by extermination. From both literary andhistorical perspectives, this book contributes a great deal to the understandingof the Holocaust and of inappropriate death.

Langer, Lawrence L. The Holocaust and the Literary Imagination. New Haven, CT:Yale University Press, 1975.

Examining specific literary works, Langer provides detailed analysis of a numberof novels, including Schwartz-Bart's "The Last of the Just" and Kosinki's "ThePainted Bird". He also includes some poetry and Wiesel's "Night", which, althoughnon-fiction, qualifies as literature due to its imaginative power and artfulpresentation.

Rosenfeld, Alvin H. A Double Dying: Reflections on Holocaust Literature.Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1980.

This survey of Holocaust literature includes works of both fiction andnon-fiction. Rosenfeld focuses particularly on the criteria for judging books onthe Holocaust. He discusses a number of individual books, from classics likeNight to more recent works, including some which he describes as exploiting theHolocaust. The usefulness of this source is augmented by an excellentbibliography.

Roskies, David. Against the Apocalypse: Responses to Catastrophe in Modern JewishCulture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 1984.

This scholarly study of Jewish literature includes both pre- and post-Holocaustliterature in addition to Holocaust literature itself. It also includes monumentsand other works of art. It focuses on the literary and artistic expression ofmodern Jewish experience in eastern Europe, beginning in the late nineteenthcentury and continuing through World War I and the Holocaust into thepost-Holocaust world.


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