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The Eichmann Trial - Proceedings: The 15 Charges


Charges from the court transcript:

Clerk of the Court: Criminal Case No. 40/61. The AttorneyGeneral versus Adolf Eichmann, the son of Adolf Karl Eichmann. On behalf of the prosecution, Mr. Gideon Hausner, Attorney General, Dr. Ya'akov Robinson, Assistant to the Attorney General, Mr.Gabriel Bach, Mr. Ya'akov Baror, Mr. Zvi Terlo --Assistant State Attorneys; the Accusedin person and his Counsel, Dr. Robert Servatius.

Presiding Judge: Adolf Eichmann, are you Adolf Eichmann, theson of Adolf Karl Eichmann?

Accused: [standing] Yes.

Presiding Judge: Are you represented in this trial by Dr.Robert Servatius and by Mr. Dieter Wechtenbruch?

Accused: Yes.

Presiding Judge: You are accused before this Court in terms ofan indictment containing 15 counts. I shall read the indictment to you and this indictmentwill be translated for you into German. This is the indictment against you on behalf ofthe Attorney General.


FIRST COUNT

Nature of the Offence

Crime against the Jewish People,an offence against Section 1(a)(1) of the Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law, 5710-1950 andSection 23 of the Criminal Law Ordinance, 1936.

Particulars of the Offence

(a) The Accused, during the period from 1939 to 1945, together with others, caused the deaths of millions of Jews as the persons whowere responsible for the implementation of the plan of the Nazis for the physical extermination of the Jews, a plan known by its title "The Final Solution of theJewish Question."

(b) Immediately after the outbreak of the Second World War the Accused wasappointed to be the head of a Section of the Gestapo in Berlin the functions of which wereto locate, deport and exterminate the Jews of Germany and of the other countries ofthe Axis as well as in the areas which the Axis States had occupied. The Sectionbore, in succession, these identification numbers:
IVD4; IVB4; IVA4.

(c) Instructions for carrying out the plan of extermination in Germany were givendirectly by the Accused to local headquarters of the Gestapo, whilst in Berlin,Vienna and Prague the Accused's instructions were given to the central offices(Zentralstelle für Jüdische Auswanderung) for the administration ofwhich he was personally responsible until their dissolution, shortly before theend of the Second World War.

(d) In the areas of German occupation the Accused operated through theoffices of the commanding officers of the Security Police and the SD and thepersons specifically responsible for Jewish affairs who were appointed fromamongst the personnel of the Accused's Section in the Gestapo, and who weresubject to his directives.

(e) In the countries of the Axis and the occupied areas, the Accused madeuse of the offices of Germany's foreign representatives in each individual place,and he did so in constant liaison with the special departments of the GermanForeign Ministry in Berlin which dealt with matters concerning Jews. In theserepresentative offices advisers were appointed subject to his directives.

(f) The Accused together with others perpetrated the extermination ofJews, inter alia, by means of putting them to death in concentration camps, thepurpose of which was mass murder, of which the more important ones were:

  1. Auschwitz: Millions of Jews were exterminated here, commencing from theyear 1941 and until the end of January 1945, in gas chambers, in incinerators, byshooting and by hanging. The Accused directed the commanders of this camp to usethe gas Zyklon B and during the years 1942 and 1944 actually took steps to ensurethe supply of a quantity of gas for the purpose of exterminating Jews.

  2. Chelmno: This extermination camp was operated from the beginningof November 1941 until the beginning of 1945, and in it, inter alia, poisonousgases were used.

  3. Belzec: This extermination camp was operated from the month ofMarch 1942 until October 1943, and in it poisonous gases were used, among othermeans of extermination.

  4. Sobibor: This extermination camp was operated from the month ofMarch 1942 until October 1943, and in it were installed, inter alia, five roomsbuilt of stone into which poisonous gases were introduced.

  5. Treblinka: This extermination camp was operated on 23 July 1942and until the month of November 1943. Here too, inter alia, poisonous gases wereused.

  6. Majdanek: This extermination camp was operated from the year 1941until the month of July 1944, and in it, inter alia, poisonous gases wereused.

(g) Immediately following the invasion of the German Army into Poland, inSeptember 1939, the Accused carried out acts of expulsion, the uprooting ofpopulations, and extermination which were coordinated with massacre unitsmobilized from the ranks of the German Security Police and the SS and called bythe name Einsatzgruppen ("Operation Units"). Such units operated also after theinvasion of the Soviet Union in the year 1941, and advanced in the wake of theGerman Army. They received their orders directly from the "Head Office for ReichSecurity" (RSHA) and operated in collaboration with the Accused in theextermination of Jews, each within the area of its authority. The Units weremade to act especially on the Jewish Sabbath and Festival Days -- dates whichwere selected for the massacre of Jews. These Units exterminated hundreds ofthousands of Jews in the German area of occupation in Poland.

(h) Before the invasion of the German Army into the regions of the SovietUnion and the Baltic countries, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, which were annexedto her, four Operation Units were organized by the Head Office for Reich Security(RSHA) working in collaboration with the Accused in the extermination of the Jewsin the aforementioned regions in that part of Poland which had been annexed tothe Soviet Union after September 1939. The acts of these Units included, interalia, the following operations:

  1. Operation Unit "A" put to death in the course of the first fourmonths of the German Army's invasion into the aforementioned regions:
    • Lithuania: over 80,000 Jews;
    • Latvia: over 30,000 Jews;
    • Estonia: about 470 Jews;
    • Belorussia: over 7,600 Jews;
    • Russia: about 2,000 Jews;
    • The province of Tilsit: about 5,500 Jews.

    A total of over 135,000 Jews.

  2. Operation Unit "B" up to 14 November 1941 exterminated upwardsof 45,000 Jews in Belorussia and other zones.

  3. Operation Unit "C" up to 3 November 1941 exterminated in theUkraine more than 75,000 Jews -- and amongst them about 33,000 Jews of Kiev.

  4. Operation Unit "D" exterminated about 54,000 Jews up to 12December 1941.

  5. During the period August to November 1942, these Operation Unitsexterminated approximately 363,000 Jews. These Operation Units dealt on thisscale and with this objective in the aforementioned areas in the extermination ofthe Jews, beginning from June 1941, and until the year 1944, and exterminatedhundreds of thousands of Jews in addition to those previously specified.

(i) At the end of the year 1941, the Accused gave orders to deportthousands of Jews from Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia (the Protectorate) toghettos in Riga, Kovno and Minsk. These Jews were exterminated -- and amongstothers --

  1. (1) A transport of these Jews from the Reich (Germany) was murdered on30 November 1941 together with about 4,000 Jews of Riga.

  2. (2) About 3,500 Jews from Germany who were sent to Minsk as mentioned,upon the orders of the Accused, were liquidated by an Operation Unit inBelorussia, together with 55,000 Jews from amongst the residents of the area.

(j) The Accused, together with others, caused the deaths of thousands ofJews between the years 1940-1945 in forced labour camps which were administeredunder a concentration camp regime and where Jews were enslaved, tortured andstarved to death in Germany and the countries it conquered.

(k) The Accused, together with others, caused the deaths of additionalhundreds of thousands of Jews between the years 1939-1945 by means of massdeportations and the assembly of the Jews in ghettos and other places ofconcentration, which were implemented under cruel and inhuman conditions inGermany and the other countries of the Axis, and also in the occupied regions,namely in the following countries:

  • Germany, Austria, Italy, Bulgaria, Belgium.

  • The Soviet Union and the Baltic countries Lithuania, Latvia andEstonia which were annexed by her, and that part of Poland which had been annexedto the Soviet Union after September 1939.

  • Denmark, Holland, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Greece, Luxembourg, Monaco,Norway, Poland, Czechoslovakia, France, and Romania.
(l) The Accused caused the deaths of approximately half a million of the Jews ofHungary by means of their mass deportation to the extermination camp at Auschwitzand other places during the period between 19 March 1944 and 24 December 1944when he was serving as Head of the "Eichmann Special Commando Unit"(Sondereinsatz-kommando Eichmann) in Budapest.(m) The Accused carried out all the acts detailed in this count with theintention of destroying the Jewish People.


SECOND COUNT

Nature of the Offence

Crime against the Jewish People, an offence against Section 1(a)(1) of the Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law, 5710-1950 andSection 23 of the Criminal Law Ordinance, 1936.

Particulars of the Offence

(a) The Accused, together with others, subjected many millions of Jews to livingconditions which were likely to bring about their physical destruction, duringthe period 1939 to 1945 and to this end operated in Germany and the othercountries of the Axis, in the areas of their occupation and also in areas whichwere in practice subject to their authority. In the said period and by virtue ofhis functions mentioned in the First Count, and in order to implement "The FinalSolution of the Jewish Question" he acted in the following ways:
  1. Enslaving them in forced labour camps
  2. Placing and keeping them in ghettos
  3. Driving them into transit camps and other places of concentration
  4. Their deportation and their mass transportation under inhuman conditions
    And all of this was done by the Accused for those same objectives, by the samemethods of operation and in the same places as described in the First Count.

(b) The Accused carried out these acts with the intention of destroyingthe Jewish People.

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THIRD COUNT

Nature of the Offence

Crime against the Jewish People,an offence against section 1

(a)(1) of the Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law 5710- 1950,and section 23 of the Criminal Law Ordinance, 1936.

Particulars of the Offence

(a) During the period of Nazi rule, the Accused fulfilled functions in theSecurity Service of the SS (SD) for dealing with Jews, according to the plan ofthe Nazi Party (NSDAP). These functions were amalgamated after the outbreak ofthe Second World War with the functions of the Department in the Gestapodescribed in the First Count and which was headed by the Accused.

(b) Throughout that entire period the Accused, together with others,caused grave harm to millions of Jews, physically and mentally, in Germany and inthe other countries of the Axis, in the occupied areas and also in the areaswhich in practice were subject to their authority in those countries specified inthe First Count.

(c) The Accused, together with others, caused this grave harm by means ofenslavement, starvation, expulsion and persecution, confinement to ghettos, totransit camps and to concentration camps -- all this under conditions intended tohumiliate the Jews, to deny their rights as human beings, to oppress and tormentthem by inhuman suffering and torture.

(d) The Accused, together with others, carried out these acts by adoptingmethods, of which the most important were:

  1. Sudden mass arrests of innocent Jews, without judicial process,and only because of their being Jews, and their torture in concentration camps,such as those at Dachau and Buchenwald;

  2. The organization of mass persecution by means of arrests, cruelbeatings, the infliction of serious injury, and torture in concentration camps,of approximately 2,000 Jews of Germany and Austria on the night between the 9thand 10th November 1938;

  3. Organizing operations of social and economic boycott of the Jewsand stigmatizing them as a subhuman racial group;

  4. Putting into practice the laws known as "The Nuremberg Laws" forthe purpose of depriving millions of Jews in all those countries specified in theFirst Count of their human rights.

(e) The Accused carried out these acts with the intention of destroyingthe Jewish People.


FOURTH COUNT

Nature of the Offence

Crime against the Jewish People, an offence against Section 1(a)(1) of the Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law 5710-1950 andSection 23 of the Criminal Law Ordinance, 1936.

Particulars of the Offence

(a) Commencing in the year 1942, the Accused, together with others, adoptedmeasures calculated to prevent births amongst the Jews of Germany, and theoccupied countries.

(b) The adoption of these measures by the Accused in his official capacityas Head of the Department for Jewish Affairs in the Gestapo in Berlin was alsointended to advance the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question."

(c) Amongst these measures were;

  1. Instructions by the Accused to Dr. Eppstein, head of the Council ofElders in the Concentration Camp at Terezin (Theresienstadt) in the years1943-44, concerning the ban on births in the camp, and concerning the terminationof pregnancies by means of artificial abortion in every case and in all stages ofpregnancy;

  2. An order of the German police in the Baltic countries in the year 1942against Jewish women in the Kovno Ghetto forbidding them to give birth andcompelling them to undergo operations for abortion in every case ofpregnancy;

  3. On 27 October 1942 in the offices of the Accused (RSHA) IVB4 inBerlin, the Accused, together with others, prescribed measures for thesterilization of persons of mixed descent of the first degree of Jews in Germanyand in the occupied territories according to the following principles:

    (aa) The sterilization would be carried out on the person of theindividual of mixed descent, Jew or Jewess, upon their agreeing to this in returnfor the favour of receiving permission to remain within the borders under therule of the German Reich;

    (bb)The individual of mixed descent would be entitled to choose betweensterilization and deportation to the extermination areas in the East;

    (cc) The authorities were to suggest to individuals of mixed descent tochoose deportation;

    (dd) Those choosing deportation would be separated according to their sexin order to prevent any further births;

    (ee) The sterilization would be performed privately and secretly;

(d) In laying down these measures the Accused intended to destroy theJewish People.


FIFTH COUNT

Nature of the Offence

Crime against humanity, an offenceagainst Section 1(a)(2) of the Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law 5710-1950, and Section 23 ofthe Criminal Law Ordinance, 1936.

Particulars of the Offence

The Accused committed acts,during the period between 1939 and 1945, in Germany and the other countries ofthe Axis, in the occupied territories and also in the areas which were inpractice subject to their authority, which are to be defined as crimes againsthumanity, when, together with others, he caused the murder, extermination,enslavement, starvation and expulsion of the Jewish civilian population in thosecountries and areas. The Accused committed these acts in the course offulfilling his functions as specified in the first Count.


SIXTH COUNT

Nature of the Offence

Crime against humanity, an offenceagainst section 1(a)(2) of the Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law 5710-1950, and Section 23 ofthe Criminal Law Ordinance, 1936.

Particulars of the Offence

The Accused in committing theacts described in Counts 1 to 5 persecuted Jews on national, racial, religious and political grounds.


SEVENTH COUNT

Nature of the Offence

Crime against humanity, an offenceagainst Section l(a)(2) of the Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law 5710-1950, and Section 23 ofthe Criminal Law Ordinance, 1936.

Particulars of the Offence

(a) During the period of Nazi rule in Germany and the other countries ofthe Axis, in the occupied countries, and also in the areas which were, inpractice, subject to their authority, the Accused, together with others, causedthe plunder of the property of millions of Jews who were residents of thesecountries, by means of inhuman coercion, robbery, terror and torture.

(b) Amongst the Accused's deeds were:

  1. The establishment, organization, and management of the "Central Officefor Jewish Emigration" (Zentralstelle fur Jüdische Auswanderung) in Vienna,immediately following the entry of the Nazis into Austria in the month of March1938 and until the end of the Second World War, by means of which the Accusedtransferred the property of the Jews of Austria and of the Jewish communities ofthat state to German control. This property was in part plundered in order tofinance the expulsion of the Jews of Austria beyond the country's borders and inpart transferred through coercion to the possession of the authorities by meansof terror against the owners thereof.

  2. The establishment of the "Central Office for the Emigration of Jews"in Prague following the Nazi invasion of Czechoslovakia in the month of March1939, and its organization and management by the Accused, until the end of theSecond World War, according to the model of the Central Office in Vienna. Through this office a "Special Account" was administered as a channel for thetransfer of the property of the Jews whom the Accused, together with others,robbed -- within Czechoslovakia and in other countries.

  3. The establishment of the Central Office for the Emigration of Jews andfor Jewish Affairs in Germany (Reichszentrale) in Berlin in the year 1939 and itsmanagement by the Accused until the end of the Second World War. By means ofthis Central Office, following the example of the Central Office in Vienna, theAccused, together with others, plundered the property of the Jews of Germany andthe property of their communities by the same means and under the same conditionsas he laid down in respect of the offices in Vienna and Prague.

  4. By means of collecting forced payments from persons deported fromGermany and the occupied territories, the Accused compelled hundreds of thousandsof Jews to finance their deportation to the extermination camps and the sites ofother concentrations for mass slaughter. To this end the Accused set up theSpecial Account "W" which was at the exclusive disposal of his Section.

  5. The property of the Jews slain in the countries of German conquest inEastern Europe was also plundered by their murderers -- the men of the SS. Forpurposes of centralizing the act of robbery, special operations were organized inthe years 1942 - 1943 within the framework of a special campaign for theslaughter of the Jews of Poland, which was known by the description "ReinhardtAction" (Aktion Reinhardt). The person in charge of this special operation wasthe Senior Commander of the Security Police and the SD for the district ofLublin. During these two years property estimated at a nominal value of 200million marks, but the actual value of which amounted to several times this sum,was stolen.

  6. During the Second World War and until shortly before its conclusion,freight trains were dispatched to Germany every month from the areas ofoccupation in the East, containing the movable property of those murdered in theextermination camps, in the concentration sites and in the ghettos. Thisproperty also included enormous quantities of parts of the bodies of those doneto death such as hair, gold teeth, false teeth, artificial limbs; furthermore,every other personal item was plundered from the bodies of the Jews before andafter their extermination.

  7. The Accused, together with others, planned all the operations ofcomprehensive robbery so that the property of millions of those brought forextermination might be taken from them and brought to Germany. The extent of hissuccess emerges from the fact that, when at the time of their retreat in January1945, the Germans burned 29 stores of personal effects and articles of value outof 35 such stores established in the extermination camp at Auschwitz, there werefound in the stores that were saved from the fire, inter alia:
    348,820 men's suits, 836,255 women's costumes, 38,000 men's shoes.

(c) The Accused carried out the said operations until the end of the year1939 by virtue of his special duties in the Security Service of the SS (SD); andsince the end of that year the Accused merged these duties with his functions inDepartment IV of the RSHA.

(d) The Accused carried out the robbery of the property of the Jews inGermany and in the other territories of occupation, over and above those alreadymentioned in this count as aforesaid, by means of issuing instructions to thelocal commanders of the Security Police and to those in the countries of the Axisand the occupied areas, through the foreign representatives of Germany asdescribed in the First Count.

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EIGHTH COUNT

Nature of the Offence

War crime, an offence againstSection l(a)(3) of the Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law 5710-1950 and Section 23 of the Criminal Law Ordinance, 1936.

Particulars of the Offence

The Accused performed acts,during the period of the Second World War, in Germany and in the other countries of the Axis and also inthe occupied territories, which are to be defined as war crimes, when, together with others, he caused the persecution, expulsion and murder of the Jewish populationof the countries occupied by the Germans and the other countries of the Axis. The Accused committed these acts in the course of fulfilling his functions asspecified in the First Count.


NINTH COUNT

Nature of the Offence

Crime against humanity, an offenceagainst Section 1(a)(2) of the Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law 5710-1950 and Section 23 of theCriminal Law Ordinance, 1936.

Particulars of the Offence

The Accused, between theyears 1940 and 1942 committed acts in Poland, which at that time was occupied byGermany, which are to be defined as crimes against humanity when, together withothers, he caused the deportation of more than half a million Polish civiliansfrom their places of residence, with the intention of settling German families inthose places. The displaced Poles were transferred, some to Germany and theterritories occupied by her for the purpose of employing them and holding themunder conditions of servitude, coercion and terror; some were abandoned in otherregions of Poland and the German areas of occupation in the East; some wereconcentrated in labour camps organized by the SS under inhumane conditions; andsome were transferred to Germany and were destined for the purpose ofRückverdeutschung ("Germanization"). The Accused committed these acts ofhis by virtue of a special appointment in the month of December 1939, accordingto which he was empowered by the Chief of the Security Police in Berlin to act asthe person responsible for the "evacuation" of the civilian Population.


TENTH COUNT

Nature of the Offence

Crime against humanity, an offenceagainst Section 1(a)(2) of the Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law 5710-1950, and Section 23 ofthe Criminal Law Ordinance, 1936.

Particulars of the Offence

(a) The Accused committed acts in the year 1941 in Yugoslavia inparts then occupied by Germany, which are to be defined as crimes againsthumanity when, together with others, he caused the deportation of more thanfourteen thousand Slovene civilians from their places of residence, with theintention of settling German families in their stead;

(b) The deported Slovenes were transferred to the Serbian province ofYugoslavia by methods of coercion and terror, and under inhumane conditions.

(c) The planning of these expulsions was effected by the Accused at ameeting on 6 May 1941 which took place in Marburg (Untersteiermark) and to whichthe Accused invited representatives of the other authorities dealing with thematter. The expulsion headquarters continued to be located in that city, andacted in accordance with the directives of the Accused. The Accused committedthese acts by virtue of his special appointment as mentioned in the NinthCount.


ELEVENTH COUNT

Nature of the Offence

Crime against humanity, an offenceagainst Section 1(a)(2) of the Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law 5710-1950, and Section 23 ofthe Criminal Law Ordinance, 1936.

Particulars of the Offence

The Accused committed actsduring the period of the Second World War which are to be defined as crimesagainst humanity in Germany and the occupied territories when, together withothers, he caused the deportation from their places of residence of tens ofthousands of Gypsies, their assembly in places of concentration, and theirdispatch to extermination camps in the areas of the German occupation in theEast, for the purpose of murdering them. The Accused committed these acts byvirtue of his special appointment as mentioned in the Ninth Count.


TWELFTH COUNT

Nature of the Offence

Crime against humanity, an offenceagainst Section l(a)(2) of the Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law, 5710-l950, and Section 23 ofthe Criminal Law Ordinance, 1936.

Particulars of the Offence

In the year 1942 the Accusedcommitted acts which are to be defined as crimes against humanity when, togetherwith others, he caused the deportation of approximately 100 children, residentsof the village of Lidice in Czechoslovakia, their transfer to Poland and theirmurder there. The Accused committed these acts in the course of fulfilling hisfunctions in the Gestapo in Berlin.


THIRTEENTH COUNT

Nature of the Offence

Membership of a hostileorganization, an offence against Section 3(a) of the Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law5710-1950.

Particulars of the Offence

The Accused, during theperiod of the Nazi rule in Germany, was a member of the organization known by thename of Schutzstaffeln der NSDAP (SS) and during the course of his service inthis organization attained the rank of SS Obersturmbannführer. This bodywas declared a criminal organization in the Judgment of the InternationalMilitary Tribunal on 1 October 1946 in accordance with Section 9 of the Charterof the Tribunal which was attached to the Agreement of the Four Powers dated 8August 1945, in regard to the trial of the major war criminals.


FOURTEENTH COUNT

Nature of the Offence

Membership of a hostileorganization, an offence against Section 3(a) of the Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law,5710-1950.

Particulars of the Offence

During the period of Nazirule in Germany, the Accused was a member of an organization known by the nameSicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers SS (SD). This body was declared acriminal organization in the Judgment of the International Military Tribunal on 1October 1946 in accordance with Section 9 of the Charter of the Tribunal whichwas attached to the Agreement of the Four Powers dated 8 August 1945 in regard tothe trial of the major war criminals.


FIFTEENTH COUNT

Nature of the Offence

Membership of a hostileorganization, an offence against Section 3(a) of the Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law5710-1950.

Particulars of the Offence

During the period of Nazirule in Germany, the Accused was a member of the Secret State Police (GeheirneStaatspolizei) known as the "Gestapo" and served therein as Head of theDepartment for Jewish Affairs. This body was declared a criminal organization inthe Judgment of the International Military Tribunal on 1 October 1946 inaccordance with Section 9 of the Charter of the Tribunal which was attached tothe Agreement of the Four Powers dated 8 August 1945 in regard to the trial ofthe major war criminals.

Presiding Judge: Did you understand the indictment?

Accused: Yes, certainly.


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